Michigan Energy Code

Background

  • The Michigan Energy Code was last updated May 23, 2017
  • The rules of the code take effect 120 days after filing with the Secretary of State
  • “Rules governing the energy efficiency for the design and construction of buildings and structures, not including residential buildings, shall be those contained in the international energy conservation code, 2015 edition, except for sections C107.2 to C107.5, C108.2 to C108.4, C301.2, C301.3, C302, C401.2.1 to C408.3.2, C502.2 to C502.2.6.2, C503.2 to C503.6 and the ASHRAE energy standard for buildings except low-rise residential buildings, ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA standard 90.1-2013 (hereafter the standard), including appendices A, B, C, D, and G, except for sections 8.4.2, 8.4.3 to 8.4.3.2 . With the amendments noted, the international energy conservation code and the standard are adopted in these rules by reference.”

 

Analysis

As a result of the exceptions listed:

  • Michigan does NOT adopt IECC for lighting controls (Appendix A)
  • Michigan adopts ASHRAE 90.1 2013 for lighting controls (Appendix A)
    • However, automatic receptacle control is NOT required (8.4.2)
    • However, electrical energy monitoring for interior lighting installed in new buildings is NOT required (8.4.3 to 8.4.3.2)
    • Michigan Energy Code Amendment “R 408.31098c Lighting alternations” supports this analysis and cites section 9.1.2 of ASHRAE as the lighting controls requirements

 

Michigan Code Highlights

Local control

All spaces require at least one manual local control, normally a wall switch. In the past, an occupancy sensor could be used to automatically control the lighting without requiring a local control device. There are some exceptions to this, so it’s important to know the nuances before starting a project.

 

Manual on

None of the lighting shall be automatically turned on, with some exceptions related to safety or security.

 

Partial automatic on

No more than 50% of the lights are allowed to be automatically turned on.

 

Bi-level lighting control

This is a new requirement for most space types. Bi-level control is the ability to turn on/off or dim a portion of the lighting in areas that are unoccupied in a space.

 

Automatic daylight responsive controls

Are required for side lighting and top lighting when there is a contribution of natural daylight through skylights, windows or similar entryways in the space.

  • This requirement also has some exceptions.

 

Automatic partial off control

This requires that certain spaces such as stairwells and storage rooms where lighting is normally left on during the day or normal business hours, must now automatically reduce the lighting level by at least 50% to save energy when no one is in the space, within 20 minutes of occupants leaving the space.

  • This requirement also has some exceptions.

 

Automatic full off

All commercial buildings now must comply with the automatic lighting shut-off requirements, requiring all lighting to shut off within 20 minutes of all occupants leaving a space. Buildings less than 5,000 square feet are no longer exempt.

  • There are guidelines for scheduled shutoffs that can support these guidelines as an alternative to automatic shut off
  • This requirement also has some exceptions.

 

Parking garages

Include automatic partial and full lighting shut-off control for areas of a parking garage that are not occupied.

  • This requirement also has some exceptions.

 

Guestrooms, bathrooms

All lighting and all switched receptacles in guestrooms and suites in hotels, motels, boarding houses, or similar buildings require automatic shut off with controls after 20 minutes of occupants leaving the space. Bathrooms require automatic shut off with controls after 30 minutes of occupants leaving the space.

  • This requirement also has some exceptions.


 

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Appendix:

 

A. Exceptions (removed requirements)

IECC, except:

C107.2 to C107.5

C107.2 Schedule of Permit Fees


A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.


C107.3 Work Commencing Before Permit Issuance


Any person who commences any work before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.


C107.4 Related Fees


The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.


C107.5 Refunds


The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

C108.2 to C108.4

C108.2 Issuance


The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, the owner's authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.


C108.3 Emergencies


Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.


C108.4 Failure to Comply Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine as set by the applicable governing authority.

C301.2

C301.2 Warm Humid Counties


Warm humid counties are identified in Table C301.1 by an asterisk.

C301.3

C301.3 International Climate Zones


The climate zone for any location outside the United States shall be determined by applying Table C301.3(1) and then Table C301.3(2).

C302

Section C302 Design Conditions




C302.1 Interior Design Conditions


The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling.


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C401.2.1 to C408.3.2

C401.2 Application



Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following:

  1. The requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1.
  2. The requirements of Sections C402 through C405. In addition, commercial buildings shall comply with Section C406 and tenant spaces shall comply with Section C406.1.1.
  3. The requirements of Sections C402.5, C403.2, C404, C405.2, C405.3, C405.5, C405.6 and C407. The building energy cost shall be equal to or less than 85 percent of the standard reference design building.

C408.3 Lighting system functional testing


Controls for automatic lighting systems shall comply with this section.


C408.3.1 Functional testing


Prior to passing final inspection, the registered design professional shall provide evidence that the lighting control systems have been tested to ensure that control hardware and software are calibrated, adjusted, programmed and in proper working condition in accordance with the construction documents and manufacturer’s instructions. Functional testing shall be in accordance with Sections C408.3.1.1 and C408.3.1.2 for the applicable control type.


C408.3.1.1 Occupant sensor controls



Where occupant sensor controls are provided, the following procedures shall be performed:

  1. Certify that the occupant sensor has been located and aimed in accordance with manufacturer recommendations.
  2. For projects with seven or fewer occupant sensors, each sensor shall be tested.

  3. For projects with more than seven occupant sensors, testing shall be done for each unique combination of sensor type and space geometry. Where multiples of each unique combination of sensor type and space geometry are provided, not less than 10 percent, but in no case less than one, of each combination shall be tested unless the code official or design professional requires a higher percentage to be tested. Where 30 percent or more of the tested controls fail, all remaining identical combinations shall be tested.

    For occupant sensor controls to be tested, verify the following:

    1. 3.1. Where occupant sensor controls include status indicators, verify correct operation.
    2. 3.2. The controlled lights turn off or down to the permitted level within the required time.
    3. 3.3. For auto-on occupant sensor controls, the lights turn on to the permitted level when an occupant enters the space.
    4. 3.4. For manual-on occupant sensor controls, the lights turn on only when manually activated.
    5. 3.5. The lights are not incorrectly turned on by movement in adjacent areas or by HVAC operation.

C408.3.1.2 Time-switch controls



Where time-switch controls are provided, the following procedures shall be performed:

  1. Confirm that the time-switch control is programmed with accurate weekday, weekend and holiday schedules.
  2. Provide documentation to the owner of time-switch controls programming including weekday, weekend, holiday schedules, and set-up and preference program settings.
  3. Verify the correct time and date in the time switch.
  4. Verify that any battery back-up is installed and energized.
  5. Verify that the override time limit is set to not more than 2 hours.

  6. Simulate occupied condition. Verify and document the following:

    1. 6.1. All lights can be turned on and off by their respective area control switch.
    2. 6.2. The switch only operates lighting in the enclosed space in which the switch is located.

  7. Simulate unoccupied condition. Verify and document the following:

    1. 7.1. Nonexempt lighting turns off.
    2. 7.2. Manual override switch allows only the lights in the enclosed space where the override switch is located to turn on or remain on until the next scheduled shutoff occurs.
  8. Additional testing as specified by the registered design professional.


C408.3.1.3 Daylight responsive controls



Where daylight responsive controls are provided, the following shall be verified:

  1. Control devices have been properly located, field calibrated and set for accurate setpoints and threshold light levels.
  2. Daylight controlled lighting loads adjust to light level set points in response to available daylight.
  3. The locations of calibration adjustment equipment are readily accessible only to authorized personnel.

C408.3.2 Documentation requirements


Theconstruction documents shall specify that documents certifying that the installed lighting controls meet documented performance criteria of Section C405 are to be provided to the building owner within 90 days from the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy .

C502.2 to C502.2.6.2

C502.2 Prescriptive Compliance


Additions shall comply with Sections C502.2.1 through C502.2.6.2.


C502.2.1 Vertical Fenestration


New vertical fenestration area that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4. Additions with vertical fenestration that result in a total building fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 or additions that exceed the fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.1 for the addition only. Additions that result in a total building vertical glass area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.1 shall comply with Section C407.


C502.2.2 Skylight Area


New skylight area that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4. Additions with skylight area that result in a total building skylight area greater than C402.4.1 or additions that exceed the skylight area shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2 for the addition only. Additions that result in a total building skylight area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.2 shall comply with Section C407.


C502.2.3 Building Mechanical Systems


New mechanical systems and equipment that are part of the addition and serve the building heating, cooling and ventilation needs shall comply with Section C403.


C502.2.4 Service Water-Heating Systems


New service water-heating equipment, controls and service water heating piping shall comply with Section C404.


C502.2.5 Pools and Inground Permanently Installed Spas


New pools and inground permanently installed spas shall comply with Section C404.9.


C502.2.6 Lighting Power and Systems


New lighting systems that are installed as part of the addition shall comply with Section C405.


C502.2.6.1 Interior Lighting Power


The total interior lighting power for the addition shall comply with Section C405.4.2 for the addition alone, or the existing building and the addition shall comply as a single building.


C502.2.6.2 Exterior Lighting Power


The total exterior lighting power for the addition shall comply with Section C405.5.1 for the addition alone, or the existing building and the addition shall comply as a single building.

C503.2 to C503.6

C503.2 Change in Space Conditioning


Any nonconditioned or low-energy space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code.


C503.3 Building Envelope


New building envelope assemblies that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sections C402.1 through C402.5.


C503.3.1 Roof Replacement


Roof replacements shall comply with Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4 where the existing roof assembly is part of the building thermal envelope and contains insulation entirely above the roof deck.


C503.3.2 Vertical Fenestration


The addition of vertical fenestration that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4. The addition of vertical fenestration that results in a total building fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.1 for the space adjacent to the new fenestration only. Alterations that result in a total building vertical glass area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.1 shall comply with Section C407.


C503.3.3 Skylight Area


The addition of skylight area that results in a total building skylight area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4. The addition of skylight area that results in a total building skylight area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2 for the space adjacent to the new skylights. Alterations that result in a total building skylight area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.2 shall comply with Section C407.


C503.4 Heating and Cooling Systems


New heating, cooling and duct systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sections C403.


C503.4.1 Economizers


New cooling systems that are part of alteration shall comply with Section C403.3.


C503.5 Service Hot Water Systems


New service hot water systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section C404.


C503.6 Lighting Systems


New lighting systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section C405.


Exception.Alterations that replace less than 10 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power.



ASHRAE, except:

8.4.2

8.4.2 Automatic Receptacle Control. The following shall

be automatically controlled:

a. At least 50% of all 125-volt 15- and 20-amp receptacles

in all private offices, conference rooms, rooms used primarily

for printing and/or copying functions, break

rooms, classrooms, and individual workstations

b. At least 25% of branch circuit feeders installed for modular

furniture not shown on the construction documents

This control shall function on a scheduled basis using a time-of-day operated control

device that turns receptacles off at specific programmed

times—an independent program schedule shall be provided

for controlled areas of no more than 5000 ft2 and

not more than one floor (the occupant shall be able to

manually override the control device for up to two

hours),

b. an occupant sensor that shall turn receptacles off within

20 minutes of all occupants leaving a space, or

c. an automated signal from another control or alarm system

that shall turn receptacles off within 20 minutes after

determining that the area is unoccupied.

All controlled receptacles shall be permanently marked

to visually differentiate them from uncontrolled receptacles

and are to be uniformly distributed throughout the space.

Plug-in devices shall not be used to comply with Section

8.4.2.

Exceptions: Receptacles for the following shall not require

an automatic control device:

1. Receptacles specifically designated for equipment

requiring continuous operation (24 hours/day, 365

days/year)

2. Spaces where an automatic control would endanger

the safety or security of the room or building

occupant(s).



8.4.3 to 8.4.3.2

8.4.3 Electrical Energy Monitoring

8.4.3.1 Monitoring. Measurement devices shall be

installed in new buildings to monitor the electrical energy use

for each of the following separately:

a. Total electrical energy

b. HVAC systems

c. Interior lighting

d. Exterior lighting

e. Receptacle circuits

For buildings with tenants, these systems shall be separately

monitored for the total building and (excluding shared

systems) for each individual tenant.

Exception: Up to 10% of the load for each of the categories

(b) through (e) shall be allowed to be from other

electrical loads.

8.4.3.2 Recording and Reporting. The electrical energy

usage for all loads specified in Section 8.4.3.1 shall be

recorded a minimum of every 15 minutes and reported at least

hourly, daily, monthly, and annually. The data for each tenant

space shall be made available to that tenant. The system shall

be capable of maintaining all data collected for a minimum of

36 months.

Exceptions to 8.4.3.1 and 8.4.3.2:

1. Building less than 25,000 ft2

2. Individual tenant spaces less than 10,000 ft2

3. Dwelling units

4. Residential buildings with less than 10,000 ft2 of

common area

5. Critical and Equipment branches of NEC Article

517

 

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